Tiger Reserves in India: Complete List, Significance, Schemes, Map, and Names

Tiger Reserves in India:- India hosts approximately 70% of the global tiger population, with the tiger holding the esteemed position of national animal. Known by various names such as Baagh, Sher, or Puli, the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris Tigris) reigns as the predominant big cat across India, save for regions like Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Kutch, and The Thar Desert. Despite their majestic stature, Indian tigers bear the weight of an endangered status according to the IUCN Red List. Project Tiger, initiated in 1973, emerged as a response to the alarming decline in the nation’s tiger populace, aiming to safeguard these formidable creatures. Since its inception, numerous tiger reserves have been established to preserve their natural habitats and promote their flourishing presence.

Tiger Reserves in India

In 1973, with the establishment of Project Tiger, the Royal Bengal Tiger replaced the lion as India’s national animal. India now boasts 54 tiger reserves, with the latest addition being the Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve. According to the 2022 Tiger Census, India is home to 3,167 tigers, nearly 75% of the estimated 4,200 tigers present in 1973. These reserves encompass 75,790 square kilometers, approximately 2.3% of India’s total geographic area. Tiger reserves play a crucial role in protecting and preserving tiger populations and their habitats. They also offer significant tourism opportunities and contribute to the conservation of the overall biodiversity in their regions.

Tiger Reserves in India

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Tiger Reserves in India Overview

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National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) was established in 2005, based on recommendations from the Tiger Task Force. Formed under the Prime Minister’s directive to address the alarming decline of tigers in India, the NTCA is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. It was created under the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972, which was amended in 2006 to enhance tiger conservation efforts and delineate the powers and functions of the NTCA.

Key functions of the National Tiger Conservation Authority include:

  • Formulating and implementing the National Tiger Conservation Strategy and Action Plan.
  • Managing and overseeing the care of Tiger Reserves.
  • Conducting research on tigers and their habitats.
  • Raising awareness about tiger protection and preservation.

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List of Tiger Reserve’s in India

SNo.State/UTName of Tiger ReserveTotal Area (sq. kms.)
1Andhra PradeshNagarjunsagar Srisailam3296.31
2Arunachal PradeshNamdapha2052.82
3Arunachal PradeshKamlang Tiger Reserve783
4Arunachal PradeshPakke1198.45
5AssamManas3150.92
6AssamNameri344
7AssamOrang Tiger Reserve492.46
8AssamKaziranga1173.58
9BiharValmiki899.38
10ChhattisgarhUdanti-Sitanadi1842.54
11ChhattisgarhAchanakmar914.01
12ChhattisgarhIndravati2799.07
13JharkhandPalamau1129.93
14KarnatakaBandipur1456.3
15KarnatakaBhadra1064.29
16KarnatakaDandeli-Anshi1097.51
17KarnatakaNagarahole1205.76
18KarnatakaBiligiri Ranganatha Temple574.82
19KeralaPeriyar925
20KeralaParambikulam643.66
21Madhya PradeshKanha2051.79
22Madhya PradeshPench1179.63
23Madhya PradeshBandhavgarh1598.1
24Madhya PradeshPanna1578.55
25Madhya PradeshSatpura2133.30
26Madhya PradeshSanjay-Dubri1674.50
27MaharashtraMelghat2768.52
28MaharashtraTadoba-Andhari1727.59
29MaharashtraPench741.22
30MaharashtraSahyadri1165.57
31MaharashtraNawegaon-Nagzira653.67
32MaharashtraBor138.12
33MizoramDampa988
34OdishaSimilipal2750
35OdishaSatkosia963.87
36RajasthanRanthambore1411.29
37RajasthanSariska1213.34
38RajasthanMukundra Hills759.99
39Tamil NaduKalakad-Mundanthurai1601.54
40Tamil NaduAnamalai1479.87
41Tamil NaduMudumalai688.59
42Tamil NaduSathyamangalam1408.4
43TelanganaKawal2019.12
44TelanganaAmrabad2611.39
45Uttar PradeshDudhwa2201.77
46Uttar PradeshPilibhit730.24
47Uttar PradeshAmangarh (buffer of Corbett TR)80.6
47UttarakhandCorbett1288.31
48UttarakhandRajaji TR1075.17
49West BengalSunderbans2584.89
50West BengalBuxa757.90
51Tamil NaduSrivilliputhur Megamalai1016.57
52RajasthanRamgarh Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary252
53ChhattisgarhGuru Ghasidas National Park (Sanjay NP)466.67
54Madhya PradeshVeerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve1414

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First Tiger Reserve in india

Jim Corbett National Park, originally known as Hailey National Park, holds the distinction of being India’s first Tiger Reserve. It was named after the renowned conservationist and naturalist Jim Corbett, who hunted man-eating tigers in Kumaon, Uttarakhand, from 1907 to 1939. In 1973, the park was chosen as the launch site for India’s Project Tiger, an initiative aimed at tiger conservation and maintaining ecological balance.

The tiger reserve boasts a diverse ecosystem, home to 110 different tree species, 50 mammal species, approximately 580 bird species, and 25 reptile species. Its varied terrain includes rivers, ridges, and streams, providing habitats for many notable animals. Besides tigers, visitors can find Asiatic elephants, leopards, wild boars, sloth bears, jackals, mongooses, and crocodiles within the park.

54th Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve

In September 2023, the Government of Madhya Pradesh established the Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve as the state’s seventh and India’s 54th tiger reserve. This new reserve spans 2,339 square kilometers and encompasses parts of the Damoh, Sagar, and Narsinghpur districts. It includes the Durgavati Wildlife Sanctuary and the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary. To support the natural movement of tigers between the Panna Tiger Reserve and the Durgavati Tiger Reserve, a green corridor will be developed. The reserve also covers portions of the Yamuna and Narmada River basins and is home to the historic Singorgarh Fort.

The vegetation in the reserve is primarily dry deciduous, with abundant Teak, Ber, Saja, Amla, and Dhaora trees. In addition to tigers, the reserve is known for a variety of wildlife, including chinkara, chital, blackbuck, sambhar, nilgai, striped hyenas, Indian foxes, leopards, wolves, jackals, barking deer, and common langurs.

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Top 10 Largest Tiger Reserves in India

S. No.Tiger ReserveStateTotal Area (sq. km.)Features
1Nagarjunsagar SrisailamAndhra Pradesh, Telangana3296.31One of the largest tiger reserves, spans 5 districts, home to Bengal tigers, leopards, pangolins, Indian rock pythons, etc.
2Manas National ParkAssam3150.92UNESCO World Heritage Site, Tiger Reserve, Elephant Reserve, Biosphere Reserve, known for One-horned Rhinoceros, Indian Tigers, Asiatic Elephants, Hoolock Gibbons, Clouded leopards, Barking Deer, etc.
3Melghat Tiger ReserveMaharashtra2768.52Prime habitat for tigers, biodiversity repository, catchment area for five major rivers.
4Similipal National ParkOdisha2750National Park and Tiger Reserve, rich biodiversity, cool breeze from dense forests, Royal Bengal Tigers, small waterfalls.
5Amrabad Tiger ReserveTelangana2611.39Located in Nallamala hills, home to Chenchu tribe, diverse biodiversity including Bengal Tiger, leopard, pangolin, Mugger Crocodiles, Indian Rock Python, numerous bird species.
6Sunderbans Tiger ReserveWest Bengal2584.89Largest delta in the world, UNESCO World Heritage Site, known for Sundari trees, Royal Bengal Tigers, conservation under Project Tiger.
7Dudhwa Tiger ReserveUttar Pradesh2201.77Located on the India-Nepal border, rich flora and fauna, habitat for Tigers, Rhinos, wild elephants, aquatic animals, enriched wetlands.
8Satpura Tiger ReserveMadhya Pradesh2133.30Located south of River Narmada, rich in biodiversity, home to various species including sambar, leopard, chital, wild boar, nilgai, etc.
9Namdapha Tiger ReserveArunachal Pradesh2052.82Unique for hosting four Feline species: Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Clouded Leopard, and various lesser cats.
10Kanha Tiger ReserveMadhya Pradesh2051.79Established in 1955, significant population of Royal Bengal tigers, Indian leopards, sloth bears, barasingha, Indian wild dogs.

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Tiger Reserves Significance in India

Tiger reserves are crucial for India, which is home to nearly 70% of the world’s tiger population. According to the IUCN Red List, tigers are classified as endangered and require protection and preservation. As apex predators, tigers play a vital role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems. Without them, ecosystems can become destabilized due to imbalances in the populations of other species, both consumers and producers. Recognizing their importance, the government is establishing more tiger reserves to ensure their protection and the health of the ecosystems they inhabit.

Schemes Related on Tiger Reserves

SchemeObjective
Project TigerEstablished in 1973 to support tiger preservation in India. Federal funds allocated for in-situ conservation in designated reserves. Oversight by NTCA.
Tiger CensusConducted by NTCA and WII, engages state forest agencies and conservation NGOs. Aims to gauge tiger population through a four-year census cycle.
M-STrIPESIntroduced in 2010, a software-based monitoring system for tiger reserves. Enhances patrolling and ecological oversight, with focus on Bengal tiger conservation.
St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger ConservationEnacted in 2010 by 13 nations including India. Aims to double global tiger population in the wild by 2022 (“TX2” motto).

Tiger Reserves Map in India

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Conclusion

India’s tiger reserves, vital for conservation efforts, stand as guardians of biodiversity. With numerous schemes like Project Tiger and M-STrIPES, these reserves ensure the protection of the majestic Bengal tiger and its habitat. The comprehensive list showcases their strategic locations, fostering a deeper understanding of their significance in preserving ecosystems. Together with international commitments like the St. Petersburg Declaration, India’s dedication to tiger conservation reflects a global effort to safeguard these iconic species for future generations.

FAQ’s

What is the 54th Tiger Reserve in India?

The unveiling of the Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve by the Madhya Pradesh Government marks the addition of the seventh tiger reserve in the state and the 54th in India.

What is the tiger conservation scheme in India?

In 1973, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of the Government of India launched Project Tiger with the aim of safeguarding the Bengal Tiger and its habitats. The project's goal was to establish specialized tiger reserves dedicated to ensuring the continued existence of tiger populations.

What is tiger scheme?

The TigerScheme is a certification program designed for technical security specialists, supported by university standards.

What is the significance of tigers in India?

Throughout Indian culture, tigers hold a revered status. Symbolizing magnificence, power, beauty, and ferocity, they have long been emblematic of bravery and valor. Additionally, tigers occupy a significant role in Hindu mythology, serving as the sacred mount of Goddess Durga.

What is Save tiger project?

In 1973, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi launched the Project Tiger conservation program in Jim Corbett Park, Uttarakhand, aiming to prevent tigers from becoming endangered. The project's objective was to establish a secure and conducive environment for the survival and proliferation of tigers and their prey.

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