What is VVPAT? VVPAT Working Process and Benefits

What is VVPAT- VVPAT stands for Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail, an independent paper record system used in conjunction with electronic voting machines (EVMs). It is connected to the EVM via a printer port, which records vote data and counters on a paper slip. This allows voters to verify their votes before casting their ballots, thereby reducing the chances of electoral fraud and rigging.

VVPAT is a significant innovation introduced by the Election Commission of India as part of its electoral reforms. It plays a crucial role for visually challenged voters, illiterate voters, and senior citizens who may have difficulty reading or writing. These individuals can confirm that their votes have been correctly recorded on the EVM, thus preventing any post-election disputes. It’s important to note that registered voters are not permitted to touch the EVM unless a ballot has been cast for them.

What is VVPAT?

The Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) system has become an integral component of the electoral process in India, ensuring transparency and verifiability in recording votes cast through the Electronic Voting Machine (EVM). In this comprehensive exploration, we delve into the VVPAT process, highlighting its advantages and its pivotal role in upholding the integrity of democratic elections.

The VVPAT serves as an independent verification mechanism, generating a paper slip that displays the candidate’s name and party symbol for whom the vote is cast. This slip is visible to the voter through a transparent window, enabling them to confirm the accurate recording of their vote before it is securely stored in a sealed compartment within the VVPAT unit. The fundamental objective of the VVPAT is to enhance transparency and accountability in the voting process by providing a tangible, physical record of each vote cast. This paper trail serves as a crucial safeguard, capable of being audited in the event of disputes or allegations of electoral malpractice.

What is VVPAT

Overview of VVPAT

AbbreviationVoter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)
PurposeIndependent verification system for electronic voting machines (EVMs)
FunctionalityGenerates a paper slip displaying voter’s choice, visible through a transparent window for verification
ComponentsPrinter and VVPAT Status Display Unit (VSDU)
DeploymentFirst deployed in September 2013 for Noksen Assembly bye-election in Nagaland
Operational DurationDisplays VVPAT slip for 7 seconds before automatically cutting and depositing it in a sealed box
Power SourceRuns on power pack battery, eliminating the need for frequent battery replacements

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How Does VVPAT Work?

The VVPAT unit is seamlessly integrated with the EVM via a printer port. When a voter casts their vote using the EVM, the VVPAT simultaneously generates a paper slip displaying the selected candidate’s name and party symbol. This paper slip is then visible to the voter for a duration of seven seconds through a transparent window, allowing them ample time to verify the accuracy of their vote. After the verification period, the paper slip automatically drops into a sealed compartment within the VVPAT unit. These securely stored paper slips can be accessed for verification purposes during the counting process or in the event of any electoral disputes.

Benefits of VVPAT Transparency and Verification:

The VVPAT system provides voters with the opportunity to verify their votes before casting them, thereby eliminating the possibility of electoral fraud or manipulation. This instills confidence among voters that their votes are accurately recorded.

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Auditing Capabilities:

The paper trail generated by the VVPAT facilitates manual audits and recounts by election officials if required. This ensures the integrity of the voting process and helps resolve any disputes or allegations of tampering.


Particularly beneficial for visually impaired, illiterate, or elderly voters, the VVPAT system allows for the physical verification of their vote through the printed paper slip, providing them with reassurance.

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Despite initial implementation costs, VVPAT can lead to long-term savings by reducing the need for expensive re-elections or legal battles resulting from electoral disputes. Opposition’s Demand for VVPAT Slip Verification Opposition parties in India have been advocating for comprehensive verification of VVPAT slips, with some calling for a 100% verification. They argue that this would further enhance the transparency and credibility of the electoral process.

Opposition’s Demand for VVPAT Slip Verification

However, the Election Commission of India (ECI) has expressed concerns about the logistical challenges and potential delays in result declaration associated with full-scale verification of VVPAT slips. Currently, the ECI employs a system of random verification of VVPAT slips from select polling stations to ensure the accuracy of EVM counts.

Finding a Balance It is imperative to strike a balance between ensuring the integrity of the electoral process and maintaining efficiency in conducting and declaring results. The ECI and political parties must collaborate to find a mutually agreeable solution that upholds the principles of free and fair elections while addressing legitimate concerns.

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Interesting Facts about VVPAT

  1. VVPAT slip is displayed for 7 seconds before it’s automatically cut and falls in the sealed drop box of the VVPAT.
  2. VVPAT does not require battery as it runs on Power pack Battery
  3. In general, To count the vote of one VVPAT it takes one hour.
  4. The VVPAT were first deployed in the bye-election for the Noksen Assembly seat in Tuensang district of Nagaland in September 2013.
  5. VVPAT consists of a Printer and a VVPAT Status Display Unit (VSDU).


The introduction of the VVPAT system has significantly enhanced transparency and accountability in Indian elections. By providing a physical record of each vote, the VVPAT system assures voters that their voices are accurately captured and counted.

While debates continue regarding the extent of VVPAT slip verification, it is crucial for citizens to understand and appreciate the importance of this system in safeguarding the democratic process. As responsible citizens, we must remain informed and engaged, ensuring that our electoral rights are protected and upheld.


What does VVPAT stand for?

VVPAT stands for Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail.

What is the purpose of VVPAT?

The purpose of VVPAT is to provide an independent paper record of votes cast using electronic voting machines (EVMs), allowing voters to verify that their votes are accurately recorded.

How does VVPAT work?

VVPAT generates a paper slip containing the voter's choice, which is visible through a transparent window for verification. The slip is then automatically cut and deposited in a sealed box.

How long is the VVPAT slip displayed for verification?

The VVPAT slip is displayed for 7 seconds before it is automatically cut and deposited in the sealed box.

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